2018-01-24 16:57 | 考研集训营
I. Translate the following terms into Chinese (15 points, 1 point each)
4、ALS自动着陆系统(Automatic Landing System)
5、NASA美国国家航空航天局(National Aeronautics and Space Administration)
10、UNCED联合国环境与发展会议(United Nations Conference on Environment and Development)
II. Translate the following terms into English
1) 十八届四中全会the Fourth Plenary Session of the 18 th Central Committee
2) 亚太经合组织APEC(Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation)
4) 量化宽松政策quantitative easing policy
5) 公使衔参赞minister-counselor ;counsellor with the rank of minister
6) 埃博拉病毒Ebola virus
8) 防空识别区air defense identification zone
9) 负面清单Negative List
10) 房产税Housing property tax
11) 专利技术patented technology
12) 和而不同harmony in diversity
13) 地沟油illegal cooking oil;swill-cooked dirty oil
14) 真人秀reality show
15) 逆袭counter attack
III. Translate the following passages into Chinese (60 points):
The 1992 Rio conference was a high watermark for environmental law. Despite all the many accomplishments since then, we must now acknowledge that Rio has not fulfilled the promises with which the world invested it. After 50 years of diligent and sophisticated work by environmental lawyers on legislation, regulation, principles, treaties, and judicial decisions, how is it that hte “actual landscape” of the world’s resources is still “slipping two steps backward for each forward stride”?
Part of the explanation for that disappointing result can be found in the statements issued by a distinguished international collections of prosecutors, judges, and legal scholars at the Rio+20-related World Congress on Justice, Governance, and Law for Environmental Sustainability. They focused almost exclusively on matters of substantive doctrine and legal procedure. Recommitment to enhancing “law” in this narrow sense-a body of formal rules and principles and the judicial and prosecutorial mechanisms for their application and enforcement-certainly has great value, and that work should go forward vigorously. But the ongoing ecological deterioration is traceable in large part to pervasive social and political attitudes favoring a growth-based model of economic “development” that steadily intensifies human appropriation of planetary resources.
To address the root of the problem, it will be argued there, environmental law needs a more expansive society-based conception of “law”, one that activates law as a social institution engaged broadly with the habits and customs, the expectations and aspirations, of people and organizations in their daily lives. Environmental lawyers, then, need a fresh and bold reimagination of their mission, to hone and use their persuasive and analytical skills in creative ways to later the social dynamic underlying environmental change and to foment a deep commitment to effective stewardship of resources.
1992 年的里约会议为环境法树立了里程碑意义的高标准。虽然自此以来取得了许多成就，但我们必须承认，里约未能实现世人所瞩目的承诺。50 多年来，环境律师在复杂的立法、监管、法则、条约和司法裁决等方面勤勉工作，那为什么世界环境资源的真实图景却依旧是“前进一步，退后两步”呢?
IV. Translate the following passages into English (60 points):
《中庸》里面说：“好学近乎知，力行近乎仁，知耻近乎勇。”这里所说的“知 耻近乎勇”中的“耻”其实是人之为人的一个文明指标。人类文明的表现之一是 要有羞耻心，也可以叫“羞恶之心”。孟子讲：“无恻隐之心，非人也;无羞恶之 心，非人也;无辞让之心，非人也;无是非之心，非人也。”
恻隐之心，就是不忍，就是“恕”，就是“己所不欲勿施于人”。辞让之心， 就是文明礼貌;是非之心，就是社会的公平正义。而羞恶之心，就是“知耻”。 孟子说这四个方面是人的“四端”，即做人的开始。没有这起码的四点，就不是 “人”了，孟子称之为“非人”。
孟子讲的“四端”在今天的意义，不需要多讲。当今社会，人和人之间的同 情心都成了稀罕物了。见死不救仅仅是怕法律误判吗?我看主要是缺少“是非之 心”，缺少正义感，缺少同情心，缺少悲悯之心。所以，如果讲当代社会大家共 同的价值，我觉得应该是礼义廉耻。这四个字源自中国文化最基本的价值，应该 成为今天全社会共认的价值。(刘梦溪)
The Doctrine of the Mean has it, “Fond of learning is close to knowledge, vigorously practicing goodness is close to magnanimity and feeling shame is close to bravery.” The “shame” in it actually is an indicator of civility of an individual. Moral sense or the sense of shame is one of the manifestations of human civilization. Mencius once put it that “those without the sense of compassion, shame, modesty and right and wrong are inhumane.”
The sense of compassion refers to sympathy and forgiveness. It is “not doing to others what you would not like them to do to you”; the sense of modesty is courtesy; the sense of right and wrong upholds social equality and justice; and the sense of shame is shame consciousness. The four senses are what Mencius called “Four Origins”, namely the origins of being mankind, without which one can hardly be deemed as humans and falls into what he condemned as inhumane.
The significance of the “Four Origins” today needs no more elaboration. In today’s society, even compassion between people is rare. Is leaving someone in the lurch simply for fear of legal misjudgment? Personally speaking, the major cause is a lack of the sense of right and wrong, justice and empathy. If certain common values are commonly acknowledged in modern, era, I think they should be propriety, righteousness, honesty and honor. They are rooted in the most fundamental values of Chinese culture and should be shared by the entire society.