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考研英语阅读真题:2013考研英语(二)第3篇

2017-10-13 10:59 | 考研集训营

2018考研英语成绩提高需要考生重点关注阅读部分,阅读部分所占分值较高,决定着考研的成败。随着考研大纲的公布、预报名的开始,考生离考研初试又近了一步,考生在这段强化冲刺期,要加强对英语阅读真题进行研究,对真题的出题方向、考察方式有进一步的掌握。

Scientists have found that although we are prone to snap overreactions, if we take a moment and think about how we are likely to react, we can reduce or even eliminate the negative effects of our quick, hard-wired responses.

Snap decisions can be important defense mechanisms; if we are judging whether someone is dangerous, our brains and bodies are hard-wired to react very quickly, within milliseconds. But we need more time to assess other factors. To accurately tell whether someone is sociable, studies show, we need at least a minute, preferably five. It takes a while to judge complex aspects of personality, like neuroticism or open-mindedness.

But snap decisions in reaction to rapid stimuli aren't exclusive to the interpersonal realm. Psychologists at the University of Toronto found that viewing a fast-food logo for just a few milliseconds primes us to read 20 percent faster, even though reading has little to do with eating. We unconsciously associate fast food with speed and impatience and carry those impulses into whatever else we're doing. Subjects exposed to fast-food flashes also tend to think a musical piece lasts too long.

Yet we can reverse such influences. If we know we will overreact to consumer products or housing options when we see a happy face (one reason good sales representatives and real estate agents are always smiling), we can take a moment before buying. If we know female job screeners are more likely to reject attractive female applicants, we can help screeners understand their biases-or hire outside screeners.

John Gottman, the marriage expert, explains that we quickly "thin slice" information reliably only after we ground such snap reactions in "thick sliced" long-term study. When Dr. Gottman really wants to assess whether a couple will stay together, he invites them to his island retreat for a much longer evaluation; two days, not two seconds.

Our ability to mute our hard-wired reactions by pausing is what differentiates us from animals: dogs can think about the future only intermittently or for a few minutes. But historically we have spent about 12 percent of our days contemplating the longer term. Although technology might change the way we react, it hasn't changed our nature. We still have the imaginative capacity to rise above temptation and reverse the high-speed trend.

科学家已经发现:虽然我们易于快速地做出过度反应,但是如果我们花点时间考虑一下我们可能做出的反应,就可以减少,甚至是消除我们快速、本能的反应所带来的消极影响。

快速决策可以是身体重要的防御机制;如果我们是在判断某人是否是个危险人物,我们的大脑和身体会自发地在几毫秒钟内做出快速反应。但是,若要评定其它因素,我们则需要更多的时间。研究表明:要准确地辨别某人是否是好交际的,我们至少需要一分钟的时间,五分钟会更好。想要评判复杂的性格方面,如或是神经过敏或是思想开阔等,就更要花上一段时间了。

另外,以应对快速刺激而做出的快速决策并不专属于人际范畴。多伦多大学的心理学家们曾发现:即便阅读和吃东西没什么关系,用短短几毫秒的时间看一家快餐店的标志还是会刺激人们提高20%的阅读速度。我们一想到快餐,就无意识地联想起快速和急躁,并把这些一时产生的情绪带到我们正在做的任何事情当中。接触一闪而过快餐标志的受试者们也往往会认为一段音乐持续时间的太长了。

然而,我们可以完全改变这些影响。如果我们知道看见笑脸相迎会让我在选择消费产品或房屋时做出过度的反应(这是销售代理和房产中介总是面带笑容的一个很好的理由),我们可以在购买之前等上一段时间。如果我们知道女性招聘官们更加有可能拒绝有魅力的女性求职者,我们就可以帮助招聘们认识到他们的偏见,亦或是雇佣独立招聘官们。

婚姻专家约翰·戈特曼解释说:我们的快速反应只有基于对"大块"信息进行长期的研究之后,我们才能信赖我们快速汲取的"薄片"信息。在戈特曼非常想要评定两个人将是否会共同生活,他会为了进行更长期的评价工作而邀请他们去他岛上的修养之所呆上是两天,而不是两秒。

我们具有通过暂停来减缓我们本能反应的能力,这使我们有别于动物: 狗智能断断续续地思考未来,思考时间只能持续几分钟。但是,从个人历史的角度来看,我们每天花了12%的时间思索更长远的事情。尽管科技可能了改变我们反应的方式,但科技还没有改变我们的天性。我们仍然有富于想象的能力,让我们不受诱惑的影响,并完全改变高速的发展趋势。

重点单词

capacity[kə'pæsiti]n. 能力,容量,容积; 资格,职位

associate[ə'səuʃieit]n. 同伴,伙伴,合伙人 n. 准学士学位获得

realm[relm]n. 王国,领域

negative['negətiv]adj. 否定的,负的,消极的

n. 底片,负

estate[is'teit]n. 财产,房地产,状态,遗产

temptation[temp'teiʃən]n. 诱惑,引诱

understand[.ʌndə'stænd]vt. 理解,懂,听说,获悉,将 ... 理解为,认为

retreat[ri'tri:t]n. 休息寓所,撤退,隐居

v. 撤退,向后倾

intermittentlyadv. 间歇地

trend[trend]n. 趋势,倾向,方位

最后的几个月,考生要专注自己的目标,去让自己变得越来越厉害。愿你,在最好的时光有能力做完自己最想做的事,祝小伙伴们研途顺利!

推荐阅读: 历年考研英语阅读真题(汇总)

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