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2019考研英语二完形填空真题源:科学工作推荐信看性别

2018-04-10 14:59 | 考研集训营

2019考研英语二完形填空历年来是考试难度比较大的题型,虽然从2017年完形填空的难度水平有所降低,但对考生备考来说也是有一定的难度,考生在备考初期练习时可以多阅读完形填空真题源文章,例如科学美国人杂志。2018考研英语二完形填空真题源为:Scientific American(科学美国人),本期小编整理了考研英语完形填空真题源科学美国人的相关资料,供考生参考。

科学工作推荐信也要看性别

As in many other fields, gender bias pervades thesciences. Men score higher starting salaries, have morementoring, and have better odds of being hired. Studiesshow they're also perceived as more competentthan women in STEM fields. And new research reveals that men are more likely to receive excellentletters of recommendation, too.

"Say, you know, this is the best student I've ever had." Kuheli Dutt, a social scientist and diversityofficer at Columbia University's Lamont campus. Compare those excellent letters, she says, to amerely good letter: "The candidate was productive, or intelligent, or a solid scientist orsomething that's clearly solid praise," but nothing that singles out the candidate as exceptional orone of a kind.

Dutt and her colleagues studied more than 1,200 letters of recommendation for postdoc positionsin geoscience. They were all redacted for gender and other identifying information, so Dutt and herteam could assign them a score without knowing the sex of the student. They found that femaleapplicants were only half as likely to snag superlative letters, compared to their male counterparts. That includes letters of rec from all over the world, and written by, yes, men and women. Thefindings are in the journal Nature Geoscience.

Dutt says they were not able to evaluate the actual scientific qualifications of the applicants usingthe archival data. But she says the results still suggest women in geoscience are at a potentialdisadvantage from the very beginning of their careers—starting with those less-than-outstandingletters of rec.

"We're not trying to assign blame or criticize anyone or call anyone consciously sexist orsomething like that. Rather, the point is to use the results of this study to open up meaningfuldialogues on implicit gender bias, be it at a departmental level or an institutional level or even adiscipline level." Which may lead to some recommendations for the letter writers themselves.

重点讲解:

1. perceive as 看作;视为;认为;

例句:If students perceive themselves as receiving care from teachers and peers, it will also discourage bullying behaviours.

当学生意识到他们受老师和朋辈所关怀,同样可以减少欺凌的行为。

2. single out 单独挑出;特别选出;

例句:The team coach singled out two players for special praise.

教练挑出两名队员给予特别表扬。

3. one of a kind 独一无二的;独特的;

例句:She's a very unusual woman, one of a kind.

她是个非常与众不同的女人,是独一无二的。

4. compared to 与…相比;和…比起来;

例句:Compared to what others have been through, I'm fortunate.

跟别人的遭遇相比,我已经算是幸运的。

5. open up 打开;开启;

例句:They are preparing to open up a national debate.

他们正准备展开一场全国性的争论。

重点单词

implicit[im'plisit]adj. 含蓄的,暗示的,固有的,无疑问的,无保留的,绝联想记忆

merely['miəli]adv. 仅仅,只不过

debate[di'beit]n. 辩论,讨论

score[skɔ:]n. 得分,刻痕,二十,乐谱

exceptional[ik'sepʃənl]adj. 例外的,异常的,特别的,杰出的

coach[kəutʃ]n. 大巴,教练;(火车)客车车厢,四轮马车,经济舱

unusual[ʌn'ju:ʒuəl]adj. 不平常的,异常的

candidate['kændidit]n. 候选人,求职者

discipline['disiplin]n. 训练,纪律,惩罚,学科

productive[prə'dʌktiv]adj. 能生产的,有生产价值的,多产的

和许多其他领域一样,科学界也存在性别歧视。男性起薪更高、能够得到更多的指导,同时被雇佣的几率也更高。研究表明,男性被认为比女性更胜任STEM(科学、技术、工程、数学)领域的工作。而新研究发现,男性还更易获得优质的推荐信。

“比如,这是我带过的最优秀的学生。”哥伦比亚大学拉蒙特校区社会学家、多元融合战略师Kuheli Dutt说优秀的推荐信一般会这样写。而一封“还不错”的推荐信则会写:“该申请人效率高、富有智慧,是个可靠的科学家等这样平实的称赞”,而这些根本不能使她从众多申请人中脱颖而出。

Dutt和她的同事研究了地球科学专业1200多封博士学位的推荐信。这些推荐信隐去了性别和其他个人信息,这样Dutt和她的团队可以在不知道学生性别的情况下为推荐信评测分数。他们发现,相比男性,女性申请者只有一半的可能性拿到绝佳的推荐信。这些推荐信来自世界各地,当然,既有男性写的,也有女性写的。该结果发表在《自然地球科学》期刊上。

Dutt表示,他们不能仅通过档案数据就来评定申请人的实际科研资质。然而调查结果还是表明:在地球科学领域,女性申请者在职业生涯初期就处于潜在劣势,因为她们受到了这些较普通推荐信的影响。

“我们并不是批评或指责任何人,也不是称他们有性别歧视。而是我们希望利用这项研究结果对隐含的性别偏见展开有意义的对话,在部门级别或机构层面,甚至是学科水平进行探讨。”这也许会为推荐人提供一些建议。

以上就是本期小编整理的2019考研英语二完形填空真题源科学美国人的原文资料,建议考生先根据英文通读一遍,然后根据单词解释再一次进行阅读,最后再看一下中文意思,以上内容供考生参考。

推荐阅读:2019考研英语二完形填空真题源(汇总)

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